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Ненашев А. (Nenashev A.) Time // 2nd ed., 2023. 103 p. URL:

Категории: Исследование, Авторский указатель

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This book is dedicated to a possibility of answering general philosophical questions through natural science approaches.

The suggested general concept of ‘hierarchy of complexity’ makes it possible to harmonize the difference between the conceptions of natural laws for "inert matter", biological and social relations. It opens the possibility to account an impact of the observer on systems described by himself.

An apparent contradiction between an objective and subjective time representation is resolved by its reformulation in the form of a relational – not a postulated! – unit.

Interactions and paradoxes of the quantum world as well as some contradictions of thermodynamic descriptions associated with concepts of time and the observer are especially analyzed.


Chapter 1. Free parameters – / 3 /

Annex to Chapter 1 – / 8 /

Chapter 2. Complexity levels – / 10 /

Annex to Chapter 2 – / 17 /

Chapter 3. Space 3+1 – / 21 /

Annex to Chapter 3 – / 28 /

Chapter 4. Field, locality, and motion – / 30 /

Annex to Chapter 4 – / 36 /

Chapter 5. Entropy – / 39 /

Annex to Chapter 5 – / 45 /

Chapter 6. The time flow – / 47 /

Annex to Chapter 6 – / 51 /

Chapter 7. The fundamental law – / 53 /

Chapter 8. Laws of nature – / 58 /

Chapter 9. The relations of the microcosm – / 63 /

Annex to Chapter 9 – / 68 /

Chapter 10. Causality, objectivity, determinism – / 70 /

Chapter 11. Information and biology – / 79 /

Annex to Chapter 11 – / 83 /

Chapter 12. The human – society system – / 86 /

Chapter 13. Freedom and predetermination – / 90 /

Chapter 14. Nature philosophy – / 95 /


Chapter 6. The Time Flow

The universal parameter «time» set in this way acquires interesting peculiarities. According to the hierarchy, it is a real number of 5Д, and it is also a scalar that differs from the vector part - in 5,4Д. It should also be added that the independence of the laws of physics from the moment of time, postulated in modern science (homogeneity of time), is a simple consequence of the use of t starting from 6Е level, where a value of Т cannot be distinguished from other values (therefore heterogeneity does not exist in principle) - see Chapter 3. *)[1] Next, in the 7Ж, countable (while real - see Chapter 4) ordered segments are defined for it, that is, it is an ordered quantity that can be used in 'operation of differentiation. Finally, as shown above, at the 11Л level, it is necessary to attribute it such characteristic as a current. In fact, for each level,

This parameter, time, although the value is the same, carries different loads and we should use the designations tЕ , tЖ , tИ, tЛ. Time has, so to speak, different layers manifested according to the description of relations of different levels of complexity


[1] In general, of the parameters t,x,y,z, of 6Е level for attributing extra complexity, the undirected t is the most convenient. For example, in 7Ж, the difference between the two dS positions can be set via dt (accurate to score ) The spatial change is then dx = vxdt dy= vydt dz = vzdt , and moving to integration, the complete integration of the temporal part can be separated from the spatial part, so the spatial changes will not depend directly on each other, but only on t. Otherwise, by assigning a new complexity to a parameter of the space part of x,y or z, the directions in 3+1 will depend on each other.


Chapter 7. The Fundamental Law

The empirical rule that all relationships are ranked by hierarchy can be made paramount - to designate it as the basic law of our world or Nash Law. In other words, there are no natural, mathematical, or other entities outside the hierarchy of relationships. There is no perfect world of mathematics or the physical world, there is one world, the essence of the implementation of Nash Law


Chapter 10. Causality, objectivity, determinism

Laplace’s demon, tracking and calculating the interactions of macroscopic bodies as the sum of material points, will be surprised to see that the real position of particles will be described by another parameter, entropy ҇s. A demon with a complexity of no less than 10,-2К will see how the overall picture of the position of the particles changes, as if they are being pulled out by some additional «force». In doing so, focusing on the interactions of individual particles - level 9И - he will see the exact implementation of Newton’s laws.

If the demon is even more attentive (his level of complexity will exceed 10К), then for him there will exist a difference between the individual parts of material bodies, their asymmetry in different interactions, which can only be revealed by comparing them with each other, differences in the results of different interactions under different initial conditions (temperature, mass, etc.). As a result, he will see the scraping of hydrogen clouds, the star formation, and the synthesis of heavy chemical elements. However, there is no way he can reduce this to the interactions of Newton’s Second Law unless he takes into account all the additional parameters that arise when describing a system with increasingly higher levels of complexity. I would add that in such a case the different states of the systems under consideration are not equivalent to each other (as discussed in the previous chapter). The demon will know about the world up to a certain level of complexity – for example, to the formation of individual clouds of hydrogen (clumpiness) and a world with more complex relationships - when the star formation also goes on. This in particular determines the initial parameters for the further implementation of Nash Law or, alternatively, the reference point of time. The past and the future are not equivalent then.


Chapter 11. Information and biology

An important difference of level 12М is that it is possible to change not the whole system of relations, but the part of it responsible for the accumulation of information, which is information (molecular) code. The information accumulates, the code complicates. Due to the parameter of information, the complexity at this level is detached from the changes of all the relations of the previous levels, is not connected with them, so to speak, obtains little inertia. Let me explain what is meant by little inertia. Overhauling options from which more complex structures can be constructed requires a large number of interactions (takes time). For example, the conversion of hydrogen into heavy elements in the interior of stars is a long process that requires the collapse of the hydrogen cloud, the completion of the whole star birth and death cycle, etc. The formation of more complex chemical molecules under conditions such as, for example earth-like planets, also takes about a billion years. But if an information code (biochemical, DNA, RNA) emerges at a certain level of complexity, then the rate of changes increases. In this case, it is not necessary to wait for substances in all parts of outer space or a single planet to pass through the entire chain of transformations leading to complex carbon molecules. Moreover, new changes in living beings are only the replacement or addition of a few atoms in a particular DNA molecule, and not the creation of a new organism's code "from scratch".


Chapter 14. Nature Philosophy

The notion of different levels of complexity that are irreducible to each other was referred to in the first chapter as the TGS principle and has evolved further. In the second chapter, reference was made to the possible representation of natural systems, the overall relations of the world, in the form of a hierarchy of levels of complexity, which would then be imbued, according to the TGS, with free parameters defining both physical laws, and mathematical and biological development. The very (empirical) fact of the evolutionary increase in complexity is called Nash Law in Chapter 7. In the following chapters, constructions are developed that demonstrate the adequacy of this view. An important addition has emerged: in a similar relational task, there is no difference between the nature of the construction of 'distorted matter', mathematical structures, or social bonds. It has thus become possible to take into account the influence of the observer and in general to determine the place of public relations in the world picture. Both the world of physical interactions and of biological structures and social relations are united by the hierarchical structure itself, and since, taking into account free will, increasing complexity continues, they are determined by the evolutionary hierarchy to fulfill Nash Law.